The two main coffee bean varieties grown throughout the world are coffee arabica and coffee robusta.
Arabica coffee is used primarily in fresh coffee. With it's full flavor, it offers a more developed aromas, great finesse, sweet and sharp taste. It is considered as higher grade and superior to robusta, this variety is widely produced around 70% of world production. Arabica coffee requires a cool subtropical climate, lot's of moisture, rich soil, sun and shade. It is subject to attack from various pests, and is extreamly vulnerable cold and bad handling.
Grown at altitude above 800m, from sea level
Mild, well balanced in flavor
Arabica beans are more elongated in shape
Low concentration of caffeine
Robusta coffee is used primarily in instant coffee and espresso based coffee. Robusta coffee have a more earthy flavor, and a heavier body, and twice the caffeine kick and slightly bitter in taste. Robusta plant is harder than the arabica, and is capable of growing at low altitude than arabica coffee, robusta coffee representing around 30% of world production. It is also less subject to problems related to pests and rough handling.
Grown at altitude of 200-800m above sea level
More astringent and bitter taste
Beans are small and round in shape
High in caffeine compared to arabica